In this issue, we included three latest publications focusing on 3D printing for congenital heart disease and a novel organ on a chip model focusing on cardiac toxicity. The first two articles focus on how 3D printed models based on 3D echocardiogram datasets can be useful in intervention or treatment planning for congenital heart disease. The third article demonstrates the potential feasibility of using an organ-on-a-chip model combining breast cancer and cardiac cells to monitor breast cancer treatment and associated cardiac toxicity/side effects from chemotherapy. “From Academia” features recent, relevant, close to commercialization academic publications. Subjects include but not limited to healthcare 3D printing, 3D bioprinting, and related emerging technologies.
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– Authored by Hannah Tredway, Nikhil Pasumarti, Matthew A. Crystal, Kanwal M. Farooqi. Mini-invasive Surgery. 6 November 2020
The past several decades have seen remarkable advancements in percutaneous interventions for the treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD). These advancements have been significantly aided by improvements in noninvasive diagnostic imaging. The use of three-dimensional (3D) printed models for planning and simulation of catheter-based procedures has been demonstrated for numerous cardiac defects and has been shown to reduce complications, procedure times, and limit radiation exposure. This paper reviews the process by which patient-specific 3D cardiac models are produced, as well as numerous applications of these models for use in percutaneous interventions in CHD.
– Authored by K. L. Mowers, J. B. Fullerton, D. Hicks, G. K. Singh, M. C. Johnson & S. Anwar. Pediatric Cardiology. 20 October 2020
Cardiac 3D printing is mainly performed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) 3D datasets, though anatomic detail of atrioventricular (AV) valves may be limited. 3D echo provides excellent visualization of AV valves. Thus, we tested the feasibility and accuracy of 3D printing from 3D echo in this pilot series of subjects with congenital heart disease (CHD), with a focus on valve anatomy.
Five subjects with CHD were identified. 3D echo data were converted to 3D printable files and printed in collaboration with 3D Systems Healthcare (Golden, Colorado). A novel technique for valve modeling was utilized using commercially available software.
Two readers (KM, SA) independently measured valve structures from 3D models and compared them to source echo images. 3D printing was feasible for all cases. Table 1 shows measurements comparing 2D echo to 3D models. Bland Altman analysis showed close agreement and no significant bias between 2D and digital 3D models (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI 1.1 to − 1.1) or 2D vs printed 3D models, though with wider limits of agreement (mean difference − 0.3, 95% CI 1.9 to − 2.6). The accuracy of 3D models compared to 2D was within < 0.5 mm.
This pilot study shows 3D echo datasets can be used to reliably print AV and semilunar valve structures in CHD. The 3D models are highly accurate compared to the source echo images. This is a novel and value-added technique that adds incremental information on cardiac anatomy over current methods.
A Heart‐Breast Cancer‐on‐a‐Chip Platform for Disease Modeling and Monitoring of Cardiotoxicity Induced by Cancer Chemotherapy
– Authored by Junmin Lee Shreya Mehrotra Elaheh Zare‐Eelanjegh Raquel O. Rodrigues Alireza Akbarinejad David Ge Luca Amato Kiavash Kiaee YongCong Fang Aliza Rosenkranz Wendy Keung Biman B. Mandal Ronald A. Li Ting Zhang HeaYeon Lee Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci Yu Shrike Zhang Ali Khademhosseini Su Ryon Shin, Small. 23 October 2020
Cardiotoxicity is one of the most serious side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Current approaches to monitoring of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CIC) as well as model systems that develop in vivo or in vitro CIC platforms fail to notice early signs of CIC. Moreover, breast cancer (BC) patients with pre-existing cardiac dysfunctions may lead to different incident levels of CIC. Here, a model is presented for investigating CIC where not only induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiac tissues are interacted with BC tissues on a dual-organ platform, but electrochemical immuno-aptasensors can also monitor cell secreted multiple biomarkers.
Fibrotic stages of iPSC-derived cardiac tissues are promoted with a supplement of transforming growth factor-β1 to assess the differential functionality in healthy and fibrotic cardiac tissues after treatment with doxorubicin (DOX). The production trend of biomarkers evaluated by using the immuno-aptasensors well-matches the outcomes from conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, demonstrating the accuracy of the authors’ sensing platform with much higher sensitivity and lower detection limits for early monitoring of CIC and BC progression. Furthermore, the versatility of this platform is demonstrated by applying a nanoparticle-based DOX-delivery system. The proposed platform would potentially help allow early detection and prediction of CIC in individual patients in the future.