From Academia: Open-Source 3D printed Medical Devices and New Sensor for COVID

Category: Blog,From Academia
blank blank Oct 06, 2020

“From Academia” feature recent, relevant, close to commercialization academic publications in the space of healthcare 3D printing, 3D bioprinting, and related emerging technologies. In this issue, we share two recent publications focusing on designs and testings of open-source 3D printed medical devices, and a third focusing on a new sensor for COVID using a novel inflight fiber printing technique.  

Email: Rance Tino (tino.rance@gmail.com) if you want to pen an Expert Corner blog for us or want to share relevant academic publications with us.

Partially RepRapable automated open-source bag valve mask-based ventilator

– Authored by Aliaksei Petsiuk, Nagendra G. Tanikella, Samantha Dertinger, Adam Pringle, Shane Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce. HardwareX, October 2020 

RepRapable Ventilator System: A) standalone automated BVM-based resuscitation system, B) testing procedure, 1) bag mounting system, 2) self-inflating bag, 3) motor setup, 4) compression mechanism (pusher), 5) Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) valve [85], 6) feedback pressure sensors, 7) control system, 8) power supply with backup battery, 9) air mask, 10) mechanical lung, 11) airway pressure sensor.. Copyright. HardwareX
RepRapable Ventilator System: A) standalone automated BVM-based resuscitation system, B) testing procedure, 1) bag mounting system, 2) self-inflating bag, 3) motor setup, 4) compression mechanism (pusher), 5) Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) valve [85], 6) feedback pressure sensors, 7) control system, 8) power supply with backup battery, 9) air mask, 10) mechanical lung, 11) airway pressure sensor.. Copyright. HardwareX

Abstract: 

This study describes the development of a simple and easy-to-build portable automated bag valve mask (BVM) compression system, which, during acute shortages and supply chain disruptions can serve as a temporary emergency ventilator. The resuscitation system is based on the Arduino controller with a real-time operating system installed on a largely RepRap 3-D printable parametric component-based structure. The cost of the materials for the system is under $170, which makes it affordable for replication by makers around the world. The device provides a controlled breathing mode with tidal volumes from 100 to 800 mL, breathing rates from 5 to 40 breaths/minute, and inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio from 1:1 to 1:4. The system is designed for reliability and scalability of measurement circuits through the use of the serial peripheral interface and has the ability to connect additional hardware due to the object-oriented algorithmic approach. Experimental results after testing on an artificial lung for peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), respiratory rate (RR), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, proximal pressure, and lung pressure demonstrate repeatability and accuracy exceeding human capabilities in BVM-based manual ventilation. Future work is necessary to further develop and test the system to make it acceptable for deployment outside of emergencies such as with the COVID-19 pandemic in clinical environments, however, the nature of the design is such that desired features are relatively easy to add using protocols and parametric design files provided.

Conversion of self-contained breathing apparatus mask to open source powered air-purifying particulate respirator for fire fighter COVID-19 response

– Authored by Benjamin R. Hubbard, Joshua M. Pearce. HardwareX. October 2020

Fully assembled open source PAPR a) all components and b) in use. Copyright. HardwareX
Fully assembled open source PAPR a) all cmponents and b) in use. Copyright. HardwareX
PAPR airflow test results. Copyright. HardwareX
PAPR airflow test results. Copyright. HardwareX

Abstract: 

To assist firefighters and other first responders to use their existing equipment for respiration during the COVID-19 pandemic without using single-use, low-supply, masks, this study outlines an open-source kit to convert a 3M-manufactured Scott Safety self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) into a powered air-purifying particulate respirator (PAPR). The open-source PAPR can be fabricated with a low-cost 3-D printer and widely available components for less than $150, replacing commercial conversion kits saving 85% or full-fledged proprietary PAPRs saving over 90%. The parametric designs allow for adaptation to other core components and can be custom fit specifically to fire-fighter equipment, including their suspenders. The open-source PAPR has controllable airflow and its design enables breathing even if the fan is disconnected or if the battery dies. The open-source PAPR was tested for airflow as a function of battery life and was found to meet NIOSH airflow requirements for 4 h, which is 300% over expected regular use.

Inflight fiber printing toward array and 3D optoelectronic and sensing architectures

– Authored by Wenyu Wang, Karim Ouaras, Alexandra L. Rutz, Xia Li, Magda Gerigk, Tobias E. Naegele, George G. Malliaras, Yan Yan Shery Huang. Science Advances. 30 September 2020. 

iFP fabrication of suspended fiber structures with in situ bonding. (A) Schematic of iFP process for Ag and PEDOT:PSS fibers. (B) Schematic showing a close view of the initiation of the iFP fibers. (C) TEM and EDX of a single Ag fiber. (D) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showing fiber bond from the top view. (E) Cross-sectional schematic of fiber bond. (F) XPS depth profiling on the Ag fiber bond. (G and I) SEM images of typical suspended, aligned fiber array. (J and K) SEM images showing individual Ag and PEDOT:PSS fibers. (L) Image of a powered LED lamp and a dandelion seed on top of a suspended PEDOT:PSS fiber array, with the seed passing through the fiber array (Photo credit: Wenyu Wang, University of Cambridge). (M and N) Schematics of nonjunctioned and junctioned fiber grid structures. (O) Optical image of a suspended iFP fiber network. Copyright Science Advances
iFP fabrication of suspended fiber structures with in situ bonding. (A) Schematic of iFP process for Ag and PEDOT:PSS fibers. (B) Schematic showing a close view of the initiation of the iFP fibers. (C) TEM and EDX of a single Ag fiber. (D) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showing fiber bond from the top view. (E) Cross-sectional schematic of fiber bond. (F) XPS depth profiling on the Ag fiber bond. (G and I) SEM images of typical suspended, aligned fiber array. (J and K) SEM images showing individual Ag and PEDOT:PSS fibers. (L) Image of a powered LED lamp and a dandelion seed on top of a suspended PEDOT:PSS fiber array, with the seed passing through the fiber array (Photo credit: Wenyu Wang, University of Cambridge). (M and N) Schematics of nonjunctioned and junctioned fiber grid structures. (O) Optical image of a suspended iFP fiber network. CopyrightScience Advances
Fibre sensor attached to a face covering detects human breath with high sensitivity and responsiveness (Photo credit: Wenyu Wang.
Fibre sensor attached to a face covering detects human breath with high sensitivity and responsiveness (Photo credit: Wenyu Wang.

Abstract: 

Scalability and device integration have been prevailing issues limiting our ability in harnessing the potential of small-diameter conducting fibers. We report inflight fiber printing (iFP), a one-step process that integrates conducting fiber production and fiber-to-circuit connection. Inorganic (silver) or organic {PEDOT:PSS [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate]} fibers with 1- to 3-μm diameters are fabricated, with the fiber arrays exhibiting more than 95% transmittance (350 to 750 nm). The high surface area–to–volume ratio, permissiveness, and transparency of the fiber arrays were exploited to construct sensing and optoelectronic architectures. We show the PEDOT:PSS fibers as a cell-interfaced impedimetric sensor, a three-dimensional (3D) moisture flow sensor, and noncontact, wearable/portable respiratory sensors. The capability to design suspended fibers, networks of homo cross-junctions and hetero cross-junctions, and coupling iFP fibers with 3D-printed parts paves the way to additive manufacturing of fiber-based 3D devices with multilatitude functions and superior spatiotemporal resolution, beyond conventional film-based device architectures.

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