3D Printing for Veterinary Medicine

Category: Blog,From Academia
blank blank Feb 06, 2021

Part human evolution, part recent pandemic, we are more caring towards our animal companions in the last few years. Veterinary medicine spending as a whole is on the rise because of our compassion for our best friends. In this issue, we included three recent publications from veterinary medicine on how we can take care of our animals using 3D printing and 3D scanning technologies. The first article lays the foundation of the how-tos in 3D printing for veterinary medicine. The second article focuses on implant development for large bone defects using 3D printed bone. The result was astonishing. The last article uses 3D scanning and 3D printing to make prostheses for large animals. “From Academia” features recent, relevant, close to commercialization academic publications. Subjects include but not limited to healthcare 3D printing, 3D bioprinting, and related emerging technologies.

Email: Rance Tino (tino.rance@gmail.com) if you want to share relevant academic publications with us.

3D Printing for veterinary anatomy: An overview

Authored by Ray Wilhite and Inga WĂślfel. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 8 November 2019

3D‐printed canine 3rd digit in axial view with painted digital flexors. Scale equals 10 mm. Copyright Anatomia Histologia Embryologia
3D‐printed canine 3rd digit in axial view with painted digital flexors. Scale equals 10 mm. Copyright Anatomia Histologia Embryologia

Abstract: 

Many applications for 3D printing have appeared in the field of veterinary medicine, including many opportunities to use 3D‐printed models in anatomical teaching. Here, we present background information on the basic types of 3D printers as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each type.

We discuss methods for obtaining 3D models which can range from downloading of models to the primary collection of data from CT and MRI data sets or even generating models using 3D modeling software. We review the various types of software needed to process 3D data as well as software needed to prepare the 3D models for printing. The size and complexity of the desired model will dictate the type(s) of the printer(s) which can be used. Cost, print resolution desired and cleanup time for prints are also key factors to consider when choosing a 3D printer. Here, we presented four specific examples of how 3D prints can be used for teaching veterinary gross anatomy. Examples using fused deposition modeling, stereolithography, and color jet printing printers are given to show the wide range of anatomical models that can be made using the various 3D printing techniques.

3D‐printed models of the feline heart during diastole showing the heart at 10 cm × 6 cm (enlarged) and at 3.5 cm × 1.7 cm. Copyright Anatomia Histologia Embryologia
3D‐printed models of the feline heart during diastole showing the heart at 10 cm × 6 cm (enlarged) and at 3.5 cm × 1.7 cm. Copyright Anatomia Histologia Embryologia

Use of three‐dimensionally printed β‐tricalcium phosphate synthetic bone graft combined with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein‐2 to treat a severe radial atrophic nonunion in a Yorkshire terrier

Authored by Jordi Franch, Albert Barba, Katrin Rapper, Yassine Maazouz, Maria-Pau Ginebra. Veterinary Surgery. 8 July 2020 

Immediate postoperative mediolateral (A) and craniocaudal (B) radiographs of previous fracture repair with a locking compression plate taken 2 months prior to presentation. Mediolateral (C) and craniocaudal (D) radiographs at presentation. Note the severe bone defect and appearance consistent with atrophic nonunion. Copyright Veterinary Surgery
Immediate postoperative mediolateral (A) and craniocaudal (B) radiographs of previous fracture repair with a locking compression plate taken 2 months prior to presentation. Mediolateral (C) and craniocaudal (D) radiographs at presentation. Note the severe bone defect and appearance consistent with atrophic nonunion. Copyright Veterinary Surgery

Abstract: 

To describe a novel surgical approach to treat a critical‐sized bone defect due to severe, radial atrophic nonunion in a miniature dog. A 1‐year‐old Yorkshire terrier with a critical‐sized left radial defect after failed internal fixation of a transverse radial fracture.

Computed tomographic (CT) images of the radius were imported for three‐dimensional (3D) printing of a custom‐designed synthetic 3D‐printed β‐tricalcium phosphate (β‐TCP) scaffold. The radius was exposed, and the β‐TCP scaffold was press‐fitted in the bone gap underneath the plate.

Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein‐2 (RhBMP‐2) collagen sponges were squeezed to soak the scaffold with growth factor and then placed on both sides of the synthetic graft. Two additional cortical screws were also placed prior to routine closure of the surgical site. Radiographic examination was consistent with complete healing of the radius defect 4 months after surgery. The bone plate was removed 10 months after surgery.

According to CT examination 18 months after surgery, there was no evidence of the synthetic graft; instead, complete corticalization of the affected area was noted. Complete functional recovery was observed until the last clinical follow‐up 36 months postoperatively. Screw fixation and use of a 3D‐printed ceramic scaffold augmented with rhBMP‐2 resulted in excellent bone regeneration of the nonunion and full recovery of a miniature breed dog. The therapeutic approach used in this dog could be considered as an option for the treatment of large‐bone defects in veterinary orthopedics, especially for defects affecting the distal radius of miniature dogs.

(A) Mediolateral radiograph after plate removal 10 months after surgery. Mediolateral (B) and craniocaudal (C) radiographs 18 months after surgery; images are consistent with complete bone healing of the affected area. D, Computed tomographic (CT) images of three‐dimensional reconstruction of both forelimbs 18 months after surgery. E, Computed tomographic image of a section of the distal third of the left radius (top image). No evidence of β‐tricalcium phosphate scaffold remnants was found. Instead, both radii appeared similar on CT images of sections obtained at the same level (bottom image). Copyright Veterinary Surgery
(A) Mediolateral radiograph after plate removal 10 months after surgery. Mediolateral (B) and craniocaudal (C) radiographs 18 months after surgery; images are consistent with complete bone healing of the affected area. D, Computed tomographic (CT) images of three‐dimensional reconstruction of both forelimbs 18 months after surgery. E, Computed tomographic image of a section of the distal third of the left radius (top image). No evidence of β‐tricalcium phosphate scaffold remnants was found. Instead, both radii appeared similar on CT images of sections obtained at the same level (bottom image). Copyright Veterinary Surgery

Orthosis and Prosthesis Development for Large and Medium Animals using reverse Engineering and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

Authored by Marcelo A. R. D. Santos, RuĂ­s C. Tokimatsu, Tiago L. E. Treichel, Tales D. D. Prado, Adecir C. D. S. Junior. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science. May 2020

3D printing of the orthosis via FDM. Copyright. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science
3D printing of the orthosis via FDM. Copyright. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science

Abstract: 

Nowadays, the search for innovative techniques for Veterinary Medicine has been constant. Problems such as laminitis, that causes hoof pain in large and medium-sized animals, foot fractures that occur by trampling or even hoof breaking, can impair the productive or functional development of the animals, even leading to their sacrifice.

The aim of this research is to use reverse engineering and additive manufacturing technologies to contribute to the development of orthoses for these animals that need help to be rehabilitated back to their environment, with a more adequate comfort.

As a result, it was possible to digitize the lower limb of a calf that had an open fracture using reverse flight time engineering technology with the Kinect One equipment and thus digitize the paw to create a fixation and immobilization orthosis for the member. The orthosis was produced by additive manufacturing technology to immobilize the lower limb of the fractured calf. Thus, it is concluded that reverse engineering and additive manufacturing technologies can greatly assist in the area of veterinary medicine.

Analysis of the printed calf foot orthosis. [Black and white]. Copyright. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science
Analysis of the printed calf foot orthosis. [Black and white]. Copyright. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science

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3DHEALS From Academia (Collective) â€“ This section features recent, relevant, close to commercialization academic publications in the space of healthcare 3D printing, 3D bioprinting, and related emerging technologies.

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