Bone Grafts: Inducing Bone Regeneration with 3D Printed Porosity

blank blank Feb 03, 2021

Bone provides a living system with essential rigidity. Accidents, infections, bone tumors, and other diseases make bone repair and regeneration a substantial challenge in orthopedics. Major bone reconstruction methods usually use autografts or allografts with good biocompatibility to enhance bone union. However, these bone grafts suffer from numerous limitations, making synthetic alternatives a fascinating option. Calcium phosphates act as synthetic bone graft substitutes because they are osteoconductive and exhibit the possibility of biodegradation. Osteoconduction is the ability of bone-forming cells to invade the scaffold that is formed by the osteoconductive material and gradually replace it with new bone. However, calcium phosphates also carry the risk of implant failure due to insufficient porosity. Dense biomaterials represent only an interfacial connection with host tissue and may cause encapsulation of the implant by fibrous tissue. Thereby, dense biomaterials may hinder the degradation process and are therefore prone to microbial adhesion and the development of infections.

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